This special issue, guest edited by Ulrica Engdahl and Katherine Harrison, takes as a starting point the recent United Nation resolution that affirms human rights to trans persons (TGEU 2011), and brings attention to human rights violations based on gender identity. The aim is to focus specifically on the health care context as a key space in which issues of rights, responsibilities and care are highlighted. The articles highlight the importance of depathologisation of trans and point to ways to improve social and health care services for trans people. The authors are both scholars and activists and discuss among other things cultural representations of trans lives, attitudes towards self-medication, trans peoples’ experiences of different kinds of caregivers, and attitudes among psychologists towards trans clients.